ÅrÄ«-bhagavÄn uvÄca - the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; imam - this; vivasvate - unto the sun-god; yogam - the science of one's relationship to the Supreme; proktavÄn - instructed; aham - I; avyayam - imperishable; vivasvÄn - VivasvÄn (the sun-god's name); manave - unto the father of mankind (of the name Vaivasvata); prÄha - told; manuá¸¥ - the father of mankind; iká¹£vÄkave - unto King Iká¹£vÄku; abravÄ«t - said.
Herein we ï¬nd the history of the Bhagavad-gÄ«tÄ traced from a remote time when it was delivered to the royal order of all planets, beginning from the sun planet. The kings of all planets are especially meant for the protection of the inhabitants, and therefore the royal order should understand the science of Bhagavad-gÄ«tÄ in order to be able to rule the citizens and protect them from material bondage to lust. Human life is meant for cultivation of spiritual knowledge, in eternal relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and the executive heads of all states and all planets are obliged to impart this lesson to the citizens by education, culture and devotion. In other words, the executive heads of all states are intended to spread the science of Ká¹á¹£á¹a consciousness so that the people may take advantage of this great science and pursue a successful path, utilizing the opportunity of the human form of life.
In this millennium, the sun-god is known as VivasvÄn, the king of the sun, which is the origin of all planets within the solar system. In the Brahma-saá¹hitÄ (5.52) it is stated:
yac-caká¹£ur eá¹£a savitÄ sakala-grahÄá¹Äá¹
rÄjÄ samasta-sura-mÅ«rtir aÅeá¹£a-tejÄá¸¥
yasyÄjÃ±ayÄ bhramati sambhá¹ta-kÄla-cakro
govindam Ädi-puruá¹£aá¹ tam ahaá¹ bhajÄmi
âLet me worship,â Lord BrahmÄ said, âthe Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda [Ká¹á¹£á¹a], who is the original person and under whose order the sun, which is the king of all planets, is assuming immense power and heat. The sun represents the eye of the Lord and traverses its orbit in obedience to His order.â
The sun is the king of the planets, and the sun-god (at present of the name VivasvÄn) rules the sun planet, which is controlling all other planets by supplying heat and light. He is rotating under the order of Ká¹á¹£á¹a, and Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a originally made VivasvÄn His ï¬rst disciple to understand the science of Bhagavad-gÄ«tÄ. The GÄ«tÄ is not, therefore, a speculative treatise for the insigniï¬cant mundane scholar but is a standard book of knowledge coming down from time immemorial.
In the MahÄbhÄrata (ÅÄnti-parva 348.51â52) we can trace out the history of the GÄ«tÄ as follows:
tretÄ-yugÄdau ca tato
vivasvÄn manave dadau
manuÅ ca loka-bhá¹ty-arthaá¹
iká¹£vÄkuá¹Ä ca kathito
vyÄpya lokÄn avasthitaá¸¥
âIn the beginning of the millennium known as TretÄ-yuga this science of the relationship with the Supreme was delivered by VivasvÄn to Manu. Manu, being the father of mankind, gave it to his son MahÄrÄja Iká¹£vÄku, the king of this earth planet and forefather of the Raghu dynasty, in which Lord RÄmacandra appeared.â Therefore, Bhagavad-gÄ«tÄ existed in human society from the time of MahÄrÄja Iká¹£vÄku.
At the present moment we have just passed through ï¬ve thousand years of the Kali-yuga, which lasts 432,000 years. Before this there was DvÄpara-yuga (800,000 years), and before that there was TretÄ-yuga (1,200,000 years). Thus, some 2,005,000 years ago, Manu spoke the Bhagavad-gÄ«tÄ to his disciple and son MahÄrÄja Iká¹£vÄku, the king of this planet earth. The age of the current Manu is calculated to last some 305,300,000 years, of which 120,400,000 have passed. Accepting that before the birth of Manu the GÄ«tÄ was spoken by the Lord to His disciple the sun-god VivasvÄn, a rough estimate is that the GÄ«tÄ was spoken at least 120,400,000 years ago; and in human society it has been extant for two million years. It was respoken by the Lord again to Arjuna about ï¬ve thousand years ago. That is the rough estimate of the history of the GÄ«tÄ, according to the GÄ«tÄ itself and according to the version of the speaker, Lord ÅrÄ« Ká¹á¹£á¹a. It was spoken to the sun-god VivasvÄn because he is also a ká¹£atriya and is the father of all ká¹£atriyas who are descendants of the sun-god, or the sÅ«rya-vaá¹Åa ká¹£atriyas. Because Bhagavad-gÄ«tÄ is as good as the Vedas, being spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, this knowledge is apauruá¹£eya, superhuman. Since the Vedic instructions are accepted as they are, without human interpretation, the GÄ«tÄ must therefore be accepted without mundane interpretation. The mundane wranglers may speculate on the GÄ«tÄ in their own ways, but that is not Bhagavad-gÄ«tÄ as it is. Therefore, Bhagavad-gÄ«tÄ has to be accepted as it is, from the disciplic succession, and it is described herein that the Lord spoke to the sun-god, the sun-god spoke to his son Manu, and Manu spoke to his son Iká¹£vÄku.