yatra - where; yoga-ÄŤĹvaraá¸Ľ - the master of mysticism; kášášŁášaá¸Ľ - Lord KášášŁáša; yatra - where; pÄrthaá¸Ľ - the son of PášthÄ; dhanuá¸Ľ-dharaá¸Ľ - the carrier of the bow and arrow; tatra - there; ĹrÄŤá¸Ľ - opulence; vijayaá¸Ľ - victory; bhĹŤtiá¸Ľ - exceptional power; dhruvÄ - certain; nÄŤtiá¸Ľ - morality; matiá¸Ľ mama - my opinion.
The Bhagavad-gÄŤtÄ began with an inquiry of DháštarÄášŁášraâs. He was hopeful of the victory of his sons, assisted by great warriors like BhÄŤášŁma, Droáša and Karáša. He was hopeful that the victory would be on his side. But after describing the scene on the battleďŹeld, SaĂąjaya told the King, âYou are thinking of victory, but my opinion is that where KášášŁáša and Arjuna are present, there will be all good fortune.â He directly conďŹrmed that DháštarÄášŁášra could not expect victory for his side. Victory was certain for the side of Arjuna because KášášŁáša was there. KášášŁášaâs acceptance of the post of charioteer for Arjuna was an exhibition of another opulence. KášášŁáša is full of all opulences, and renunciation is one of them. There are many instances of such renunciation, for KášášŁáša is also the master of renunciation.
The ďŹght was actually between Duryodhana and YudhiášŁášhira. Arjuna was ďŹghting on behalf of his elder brother, YudhiášŁášhira. Because KášášŁáša and Arjuna were on the side of YudhiášŁášhira, YudhiášŁášhiraâs victory was certain. The battle was to decide who would rule the world, and SaĂąjaya predicted that the power would be transferred to YudhiášŁášhira. It is also predicted here that YudhiášŁášhira, after gaining victory in this battle, would ďŹourish more and more because not only was he righteous and pious but he was also a strict moralist. He never spoke a lie during his life.
There are many less intelligent persons who take Bhagavad-gÄŤtÄ to be a discussion of topics between two friends on a battleďŹeld. But such a book cannot be scripture. Some may protest that KášášŁáša incited Arjuna to ďŹght, which is immoral, but the reality of the situation is clearly stated: Bhagavad-gÄŤtÄ is the supreme instruction in morality. The supreme instruction of morality is stated in the Ninth Chapter, in the thirty-fourth verse: man-manÄ bhava mad-bhaktaá¸Ľ. One must become a devotee of KášášŁáša, and the essence of all religion is to surrender unto KášášŁáša (sarva-dharmÄn parityajya mÄm ekaáš Ĺaraášaáš vraja). The instructions of Bhagavad-gÄŤtÄ constitute the supreme process of religion and of morality. All other processes may be purifying and may lead to this process, but the last instruction of the GÄŤtÄ is the last word in all morality and religion: surrender unto KášášŁáša. This is the verdict of the Eighteenth Chapter.
From Bhagavad-gÄŤtÄ we can understand that to realize oneself by philosophical speculation and by meditation is one process, but to fully surrender unto KášášŁáša is the highest perfection. This is the essence of the teachings of Bhagavad-gÄŤtÄ. The path of regulative principles according to the orders of social life and according to the different courses of religion may be a conďŹdential path of knowledge. But although the rituals of religion are conďŹdential, meditation and cultivation of knowledge are still more conďŹdential. And surrender unto KášášŁáša in devotional service in full KášášŁáša consciousness is the most conďŹdential instruction. That is the essence of the Eighteenth Chapter.
Another feature of Bhagavad-gÄŤtÄ is that the actual truth is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, KášášŁáša. The Absolute Truth is realized in three features â impersonal Brahman, localized ParamÄtmÄ, and ultimately the Supreme Personality of Godhead, KášášŁáša. Perfect knowledge of the Absolute Truth means perfect knowledge of KášášŁáša. If one understands KášášŁáša, then all the departments of knowledge are part and parcel of that understanding. KášášŁáša is transcendental, for He is always situated in His eternal internal potency. The living entities are manifested of His energy and are divided into two classes, eternally conditioned and eternally liberated. Such living entities are innumerable, and they are considered fundamental parts of KášášŁáša. Material energy is manifested into twenty-four divisions. The creation is effected by eternal time, and it is created and dissolved by external energy. This manifestation of the cosmic world repeatedly becomes visible and invisible.
In Bhagavad-gÄŤtÄ ďŹve principal subject matters have been discussed: the Supreme Personality of Godhead, material nature, the living entities, eternal time and all kinds of activities. All is dependent on the Supreme Personality of Godhead, KášášŁáša. All conceptions of the Absolute Truth â impersonal Brahman, localized ParamÄtmÄ and any other transcendental conception â exist within the category of understanding the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although superďŹcially the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the living entity, material nature and time appear to be different, nothing is different from the Supreme. But the Supreme is always different from everything. Lord Caitanyaâs philosophy is that of âinconceivable oneness and difference.â This system of philosophy constitutes perfect knowledge of the Absolute Truth.
The living entity in his original position is pure spirit. He is just like an atomic particle of the Supreme Spirit. Thus Lord KášášŁáša may be compared to the sun, and the living entities to sunshine. Because the living entities are the marginal energy of KášášŁáša, they have a tendency to be in contact either with the material energy or with the spiritual energy. In other words, the living entity is situated between the two energies of the Lord, and because he belongs to the superior energy of the Lord, he has a particle of independence. By proper use of that independence he comes under the direct order of KášášŁáša. Thus he attains his normal condition in the pleasure-giving potency.
Thus end the Bhaktivedanta Purports to the Eighteenth Chapter of the ĹrÄŤmad Bhagavad-gÄŤtÄ in the matter of its Conclusion â the Perfection of Renunciation.