tÄte chaya darÅana haite 'tattva' nÄhi jÄni
'mahÄjana' yei kahe, sei 'satya' mÄni
tÄte - therefore; chaya darÅana haite - from the six philosophical principles; tattva nÄhi jÄni - we cannot understand the actual truth; mahÄjana - the great authorities; yei kahe - whatever they say; sei - that; satya mÄni - we can accept as truth.
In his Amá¹ta-pravÄha-bhÄá¹£ya, ÅrÄ«la Bhaktivinoda á¹¬hÄkura gives the following summary of the six philosophical processes. PrakÄÅÄnanda admitted that ÅrÄ«pÄda Åaá¹ karÄcÄrya, being very eager to establish his philosophy of monism, took shelter of the VedÄnta philosophy and tried to explain it in his own way. The fact is, however, that if one accepts the existence of God, one certainly cannot establish the theory of monism. For this reason Åaá¹ karÄcÄrya refuted all kinds of Vedic literature that establishes the supremacy of the Personality of Godhead. In various ways, Åaá¹ karÄcÄrya has tried to refute the Vedic literature. Throughout the world, ninety-nine percent of the philosophers following in the footsteps of Åaá¹ karÄcÄrya refuse to accept the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Instead they try to establish their own opinions. It is typical of mundane philosophers to want to establish their own opinions and refute those of others. Therefore: (1) The MÄ«mÄá¹saka philosophers, following the principles of Jaimini, stress fruitive activity and say that if there is a God, He must be under the laws of fruitive activity. In other words, if one performs his duties very nicely in the material world, God is obliged to give one the desired result. According to these philosophers, there is no need to become a devotee of God. If one strictly follows moral principles, one will be recognized by the Lord, who will give the desired reward. Such philosophers do not accept the Vedic principle of bhakti-yoga. Instead, they give stress to following oneâs prescribed duty. (2) Atheistic SÄá¹ khya philosophers like Kapila analyze the material elements very scrutinizingly and thereby come to the conclusion that material nature is the cause of everything. They do not accept the Supreme Personality of Godhead as the cause of all causes. (3) NyÄya philosophers like Gautama and Kaá¹Äda have accepted a combination of atoms as the original cause of the creation. (4) MÄyÄvÄdÄ« philosophers say that everything is an illusion. Headed by philosophers like Aá¹£á¹Ävakra, they stress the impersonal Brahman effulgence as the cause of everything. (5) Philosophers following the precepts of PataÃ±jali practice rÄja-yoga. They imagine a form of the Absolute Truth within many forms. That is their process of self-realization.
All five of these philosophies completely reject the predominance of the Supreme Personality of Godhead and strive to establish their own philosophical theories. However, ÅrÄ«la VyÄsadeva wrote the VedÄnta-sÅ«tra and, taking the essence of all Vedic literature, established the supremacy of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. All five kinds of philosophers mentioned above understand that impersonal Brahman is without material qualities, and they believe that when the Personality of Godhead appears, He is contaminated and covered by the material qualities. The technical term used is saguá¹a. They speak of saguá¹a Brahman and nirguá¹a Brahman. For them, nirguá¹a Brahman means âthe impersonal Absolute Truth without any material qualitiesâ and saguá¹a Brahman means âthe Absolute Truth that accepts the contamination of material qualities.â More or less, this kind of philosophical speculation is called MÄyÄvÄda philosophy. The fact is, however, that the Absolute Truth never has anything to do with material qualities because He is transcendental. He is always complete with full spiritual qualities. The five philosophers mentioned above do not accept Lord Viá¹£á¹u as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but they are very busy refuting the philosophies of other schools. There are six kinds of philosophical processes in India. Because VyÄsadeva is the Vedic authority, he is known as VedavyÄsa. His philosophical explanation of the VedÄnta-sÅ«tra is accepted by the devotees. As Ká¹á¹£á¹a confirms in the Bhagavad-gÄ«tÄ (15.15):
sarvasya cÄhaá¹ há¹di sanniviá¹£á¹o
mattaá¸¥ smá¹tir jÃ±Änam apohanaá¹ ca
vedaiÅ ca sarvair aham eva vedyo
vedÄnta-ká¹d veda-vid eva cÄham
âI am seated in everyoneâs heart, and from Me come remembrance, knowledge and forgetfulness. By all the Vedas, I am to be known; indeed, I am the compiler of VedÄnta, and I am the knower of the Vedas.â
The ultimate goal of studying all Vedic literature is the acceptance of Ká¹á¹£á¹a as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Ká¹á¹£á¹a consciousness movement is propagating the philosophical conclusion of ÅrÄ«la VyÄsadeva and following other great ÄcÄryas like RÄmÄnujÄcÄrya, MadhvÄcÄrya, Viá¹£á¹u SvÄmÄ«, NimbÄrka and ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu Himself.