: Let me offer my respectful obeisances unto ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu, who has unlimited, wonderful opulences. By His mercy, even a person born as the lowest of men can spread the science of devotional service.
: All glories to ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu! All glories to NityÄnanda Prabhu! All glories to Advaita ÄcÄrya! And all glories to all the devotees of ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu!
: While SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« was imprisoned in Bengal, a letter arrived from ÅrÄ«la RÅ«pa GosvÄmÄ«.
: When SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« received this note from RÅ«pa GosvÄmÄ«, he became very pleased. He immediately went to the jail superintendent, who was a meat-eater, and spoke as follows.
: SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« told the Muslim jailkeeper, âDear sir, you are a saintly person and are very fortunate. You have full knowledge of the revealed scriptures such as the Koran and similar books.
: âIf one releases a conditioned soul or imprisoned person according to religious principles, he himself is also released from material bondage by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.â
: SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« continued, âPreviously I have done much for you. Now I am in difficulty. Please return my goodwill by releasing me.
: âHere are five thousand gold coins. Please accept them. By releasing me, you will receive the results of pious activities and gain material profit as well. Thus you will profit in two ways simultaneously.â
: In this way SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« convinced the jailkeeper, who replied, âPlease hear me, my dear sir. I am willing to release you, but I am afraid of the government.â
: SanÄtana replied, âThere is no danger. The Nawab has gone to the south. If he returns, tell him that SanÄtana went to pass stool near the bank of the Ganges and that as soon as he saw the Ganges, he jumped in.
: âTell him, âI looked for him a long time, but I could not find any trace of him. He jumped in with his shackles, and therefore he was drowned and washed away by the waves.â
: âThere is no reason for you to be afraid, for I shall not remain in this country. I shall become a mendicant and go to the holy city of Mecca.â
: SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« could see that the mind of the meat-eater was still not satisfied. He then stacked seven thousand gold coins before him.
: When the meat-eater saw the coins, he was attracted to them. He then agreed, and that night he cut SanÄtanaâs shackles and let him cross the Ganges.
: In this way, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« was released. However, he was not able to walk along the path of the fortress. Walking day and night, he finally arrived at the hilly tract of land known as PÄtaá¸Ä.
: After reaching PÄtaá¸Ä, he met a landholder and submissively requested him to get him across that hilly tract of land.
: A man who was expert in palmistry was at that time staying with the landlord. Knowing about SanÄtana, he whispered the following in the landlordâs ear.
: The palmist said, âThis man SanÄtana possesses eight gold coins.â Hearing this, the landlord was very pleased and spoke the following to SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ«.
: The landlord said, âI shall get you across that hilly tract at night with my own men. Now just cook for yourself and take your lunch.â
: Saying this, the landlord offered SanÄtana grain to cook. SanÄtana then went to the riverside and took his bath.
: Because SanÄtana had been fasting for two days, he cooked the food and ate it. However, having formerly been a minister of the Nawab, he began to contemplate the situation.
: As a former minister for the Nawab, SanÄtana could certainly understand diplomacy. He therefore thought, âWhy is this landlord offering me such respect?â Thinking in this way, he questioned his servant, whose name was ÄªÅÄna.
: SanÄtana asked his servant, âÄªÅÄna, I think you have some valuable things with you.â
: Hearing this, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« chastised his servant, saying, âWhy have you brought this death knell with you?â
: Thereupon, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« took the seven gold coins in his hands and went to the landlord. Holding the gold coins before him, he spoke as follows.
: âI have these seven gold coins with me. Please accept them, and from a religious point of view please get me across that hilly tract of land.
: âI am a prisoner of the government, and I cannot go along the way of the ramparts. It will be very pious of you to take this money and kindly get me across this hilly tract of land.â
: Smiling, the landlord said, âBefore you offered them, I already knew that there were eight gold coins in your servantâs possession.
: âOn this very night I would have killed you and taken your coins. It is very good that you have voluntarily offered them to me. I am now relieved from such a sinful activity.
: âI am very satisfied with your behavior. I shall not accept these gold coins, but I shall get you across that hilly tract of land simply to perform a pious activity.â
: SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« replied, âIf you do not accept these coins, someone else will kill me for them. It is better that you save me from the danger by accepting the coins.â
: After this settlement was made, the landlord gave SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« four watchmen to accompany him. They went through the forest path for the whole night and thus brought him over the hilly tract of land.
: After crossing the hills, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« told his servant, âÄªÅÄna, I think you still have some balance left from the gold coins.â
: ÄªÅÄna replied, âI still have one gold coin in my possession.â
: After departing from ÄªÅÄna, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« began traveling alone with a waterpot in his hand. Simply covered with a torn quilt, he thus lost all his anxiety.
: Walking and walking, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« finally arrived at a place called HÄjipura. That evening he sat down within a garden.
: In HÄjipura there was a gentlemen named ÅrÄ«kÄnta, who happened to be the husband of SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ«âs sister. He was engaged there in government service.
: ÅrÄ«kÄnta had 300,000 gold coins with him, which had been given to him by the emperor for the purchase of horses. Thus ÅrÄ«kÄnta was buying horses and dispatching them to the emperor.
: When ÅrÄ«kÄnta was sitting in an elevated place, he could see SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ«. That night he took a servant and went to see SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ«.
: When they met, they had many conversations. SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« told him in detail about his arrest and release.
: ÅrÄ«kÄnta then told SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ«, âStay here for at least two days and dress up like a gentleman. Abandon these dirty garments.â
: SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« replied, âI shall not stay here even for a moment. Please help me cross the Ganges. I shall leave immediately.â
: With great care, ÅrÄ«kÄnta gave him a woolen blanket and helped him cross the Ganges. Thus SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« departed again.
: After a few days, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« arrived at VÄrÄá¹asÄ«. He was very pleased to hear about ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhuâs arrival there.
: SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« then went to the house of CandraÅekhara and sat down by the door. Understanding what was happening, ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu spoke to CandraÅekhara.
: ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu said, âThere is a devotee at your door. Please call him in.â Going outside, CandraÅekhara could not see a Vaiá¹£á¹ava at his door.
: When CandraÅekhara informed the Lord that no Vaiá¹£á¹ava was at his door, the Lord asked him, âIs there anyone at all at your door?â
: CandraÅekhara replied, âThere is a Muslim mendicant.â
: âO Muslim mendicant, please come in. The Lord is calling you.â SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« was very pleased to hear this order, and he entered CandraÅekharaâs house.
: As soon as ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu saw SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« in the courtyard, He immediately went up to him with great haste. After embracing him, the Lord was overwhelmed with ecstatic love.
: As soon as ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu touched SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ«, SanÄtana was also overwhelmed with ecstatic love. In a faltering voice, he said, âO my Lord, do not touch me.â
: Shoulder to shoulder, ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu and SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« began to cry unlimitedly. CandraÅekhara was very much astonished to see this.
: Catching his hand, ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu took SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« inside and made him sit on an elevated place next to Him.
: When ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu began cleansing SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ«âs body with His own transcendental hand, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« said, âO my Lord, please do not touch me.â
: The Lord replied, âI am touching you just to purify Myself, because by the force of your devotional service you can purify the whole universe.
: â âSaints of your caliber are themselves places of pilgrimage. Because of their purity, they are constant companions of the Lord, and therefore they can purify even the places of pilgrimage.â
: â[Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a said:] âEven though a person is a very learned scholar of the Sanskrit Vedic literatures, he is not accepted as My devotee unless he is pure in devotional service. However, even though a person is born in a family of dog-eaters, he is very dear to Me if he is a pure devotee who has no motive to enjoy fruitive activity or mental speculation. Indeed, all respects should be given to him, and whatever he offers should be accepted. Such devotees are as worshipable as I am.â
: â âOne may be born in a brÄhmaá¹a family and have all twelve brahminical qualities, but if he is not devoted to the lotus feet of Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a, who has a navel shaped like a lotus, he is not as good as a caá¹á¸Äla who has dedicated his mind, words, activities, wealth and life to the service of the Lord. Simply to take birth in a brÄhmaá¹a family or to have brahminical qualities is not sufficient. One must become a pure devotee of the Lord. If a Åva-paca or caá¹á¸Äla is a devotee, he delivers not only himself but his whole family, whereas a brÄhmaá¹a who is not a devotee but simply has brahminical qualifications cannot even purify himself, what to speak of his family.â â
: ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu continued, âBy seeing you, by touching you and by glorifying your transcendental qualities, one can perfect the purpose of all sense activity. This is the verdict of the revealed scriptures.
: â âMy dear Vaiá¹£á¹ava, seeing a person like you is the perfection of oneâs eyesight, touching your lotus feet is the perfection of the sense of touch, and glorifying your good qualities is the tongueâs real activity, for in the material world it is very difficult to find a pure devotee of the Lord.â â
: ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu continued, âMy dear SanÄtana, please hear from Me. Ká¹á¹£á¹a is very merciful, and He is the deliverer of all fallen souls.
: âMy dear SanÄtana, Ká¹á¹£á¹a has saved you from MahÄraurava, lifeâs deepest hell. He is an ocean of mercy, and His activities are very grave.â
: SanÄtana replied, âI do not know who Ká¹á¹£á¹a is. As far as I am concerned, I have been released from prison only by Your mercy.â
: ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu then asked SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ«, âHow were you released from prison?â SanÄtana then described the story from beginning to end.
: ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu said, âI met your two brothers, RÅ«pa and Anupama, at PrayÄga. They have now gone to Vá¹ndÄvana.â
: By the order of ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« met both Tapana MiÅra and CandraÅekhara.
: Tapana MiÅra then extended an invitation to SanÄtana, and Lord Caitanya MahÄprabhu asked SanÄtana to go get a shave.
: After this, ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu called CandraÅekhara and asked him to take SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« with him. He also asked him to take away SanÄtanaâs present dress.
: CandraÅekhara then made SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« look like a gentleman. He took him to bathe in the Ganges, and afterwards he brought him a new set of clothes.
: CandraÅekhara offered a new set of garments to SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ«, but SanÄtana did not accept them. When ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu heard news of this, He became unlimitedly happy.
: After bathing at noon, ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu went to the house of Tapana MiÅra for lunch. He took SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« with Him.
: After washing His feet, ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu sat down for lunch. He asked Tapana MiÅra to supply SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« lunch also.
: Tapana MiÅra then said, âSanÄtana has some duty to perform; therefore he cannot accept lunch now. At the conclusion of the meal, I shall supply SanÄtana with some remnants.â
: After eating, ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu took rest for a while. Tapana MiÅra then gave SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« the remnants of food left by Caitanya MahÄprabhu.
: When Tapana MiÅra offered SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« a new cloth, he did not accept it. Instead, he spoke as follows.
: âIf you want to give me some cloth according to your desire, please give me an old cloth you have used.â
: When Tapana MiÅra gave SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« a used dhotÄ«, SanÄtana immediately tore it into pieces to make two sets of outer cloth and underwear.
: When Caitanya MahÄprabhu introduced the Maharashtrian brÄhmaá¹a to SanÄtana, the brÄhmaá¹a immediately invited SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« for full meals.
: The brÄhmaá¹a said, âMy dear SanÄtana, as long as you remain at KÄÅÄ«, please accept lunch at my place.â
: SanÄtana replied, âI shall practice the process of mÄdhukarÄ«. Why should I accept full meals in the house of a brÄhmaá¹a?â
: ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu felt unlimited happiness to observe SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ«âs strict following of the principles of sannyÄsa. However, He repeatedly glanced at the woolen blanket SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« was wearing.
: Because ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu was repeatedly glancing at this valuable woolen blanket, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« could understand that the Lord did not approve of it. He then began to consider a way to give it up.
: Thinking in this way, SanÄtana went to the bank of the Ganges to bathe. While there, he saw that a mendicant from Bengal had washed his quilt and spread it out to dry.
: SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« then told the Bengali mendicant, âMy dear brother, please do me a favor. Trade me your quilt for this woolen blanket.â
: The mendicant replied, âSir, you are a respectable gentleman. Why are you joking with me? Why would you trade your valuable blanket for my torn quilt?â
: SanÄtana said, âI am not joking; I am speaking the truth. Kindly take this blanket in exchange for your torn quilt.â
: Saying this, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« exchanged the blanket for the quilt. He then returned to ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu with the quilt on his shoulder.
: When SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« returned, the Lord asked, âWhere is your woolen blanket?â SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« then narrated the whole story to the Lord.
: ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu then said, âI have already deliberately considered this matter. Since Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a is very merciful, He has nullified your attachment for material things. Why should Ká¹á¹£á¹a allow you to maintain a last bit of material attachment? After vanquishing a disease, a good physician does not allow any of the disease to remain.
: âIt is contradictory to practice mÄdhukarÄ« and at the same time wear a valuable blanket. One loses his spiritual strength by doing this, and one will also become an object of jokes.â
: SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« replied, âThe Supreme Personality of Godhead has saved me from the sinful life of material existence. By His desire, my last piece of material attraction is now gone.â
: Being pleased with SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ«, ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu bestowed His causeless mercy upon him. By the Lordâs mercy, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« received the spiritual strength to inquire from Him.
: Formerly, ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu had asked RÄmÄnanda RÄya spiritual questions, and by the Lordâs causeless mercy, RÄmÄnanda RÄya could properly reply. Now, by the Lordâs mercy, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« questioned the Lord, and ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu personally supplied the truth.
: ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, personally told SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« about Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs real identity. He also told him about the Lordâs conjugal love, His personal opulence and the mellows of devotional service. All these truths were explained to SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« by the Lord Himself out of His causeless mercy.
: Putting a straw in his mouth and bowing down, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« clasped the lotus feet of ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu and humbly spoke as follows.
: SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« said, âI was born in a low family, and my associates are all low-class men. I myself am fallen and am the lowest of men. Indeed, I have passed my whole life fallen in the well of sinful materialism.
: âI do not know what is beneficial for me or what is detrimental. Nonetheless, in ordinary dealings people consider me a learned scholar, and I am also thinking of myself as such.
: âOut of Your causeless mercy, You have delivered me from the materialistic path. Now, by the same causeless mercy, please tell me what my duty is.
: âWho am I? Why do the threefold miseries always give me trouble? If I do not know this, how can I be benefited?
: âActually I do not know how to inquire about the goal of life and the process for obtaining it. Being merciful upon me, please explain all these truths.â
: ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu said, âLord Ká¹á¹£á¹a has bestowed His full mercy upon you so that all these things are known to you. For you, the threefold miseries certainly do not exist.
: âSince you possess Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs potency, you certainly know these things. However, it is the nature of a sÄdhu to inquire. Although he knows these things, the sÄdhu inquires for the sake of strictness.
: â âThose who are eager to awaken their spiritual consciousness and who thus have unflinching, undeviated intelligence certainly attain the desired goal of life very soon.â
: âYou are fit to propagate the cult of devotional service. Therefore gradually hear all the truths about it from Me. I shall tell you about them.
: âIt is the living entityâs constitutional position to be an eternal servant of Ká¹á¹£á¹a because he is the marginal energy of Ká¹á¹£á¹a and a manifestation simultaneously one with and different from the Lord, like a molecular particle of sunshine or fire. Ká¹á¹£á¹a has three varieties of energy.
: â âJust as the illumination of a fire, which is situated in one place, is spread all over, the energies of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Parabrahman, are spread all over this universe.â
: âLord Ká¹á¹£á¹a naturally has three energetic transformations, and these are known as the spiritual potency, the living entity potency and the illusory potency.
: â âOriginally, Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs energy is spiritual, and the energy known as the living entity is also spiritual. However, there is another energy, called illusion, which consists of fruitive activity. That is the Lordâs third potency.â
: â âAll the creative energies, which are inconceivable to a common man, exist in the Supreme Absolute Truth. These inconceivable energies act in the process of creation, maintenance and annihilation. O chief of the ascetics, just as there are two energies possessed by fire â namely heat and light â these inconceivable creative energies are the natural characteristics of the Absolute Truth.â
: â âO King, the ká¹£etra-jÃ±a-Åakti is the living entity. Although he has the facility to live in either the material or the spiritual world, he suffers the threefold miseries of material existence because he is influenced by the avidyÄ [nescience] potency, which covers his constitutional position.
: â âThis living entity, covered by the influence of nescience, exists in different forms in the material condition. O King, he is thus proportionately freed from the influence of the material energy, to greater or lesser degrees.â
: â âBesides these inferior energies, O mighty-armed Arjuna, there is another, superior energy of Mine, which comprises the living entities who are exploiting the resources of this material, inferior nature.â
: âForgetting Ká¹á¹£á¹a, the living entity has been attracted by the external feature from time immemorial. Therefore the illusory energy [mÄyÄ] gives him all kinds of misery in his material existence.
: âIn the material condition, the living entity is sometimes raised to higher planetary systems and material prosperity and sometimes drowned in a hellish situation. His state is exactly like that of a criminal whom a king punishes by submerging him in water and then raising him again from the water.
: â âWhen the living entity is attracted by the material energy, which is separate from Ká¹á¹£á¹a, he is overpowered by fear. Because he is separated from the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the material energy, his conception of life is reversed. In other words, instead of being the eternal servant of Ká¹á¹£á¹a, he becomes Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs competitor. This is called viparyayo âsmá¹tiá¸¥. To nullify this mistake, one who is actually learned and advanced worships the Supreme Personality of Godhead as his spiritual master, worshipful Deity and source of life. He thus worships the Lord by the process of unalloyed devotional service.â
: âIf the conditioned soul becomes Ká¹á¹£á¹a conscious by the mercy of saintly persons who voluntarily preach scriptural injunctions and help him to become Ká¹á¹£á¹a conscious, the conditioned soul is liberated from the clutches of mÄyÄ, who gives him up.
: â âThis divine energy of Mine, consisting of the three modes of material nature, is difficult to overcome. But those who have surrendered unto Me can easily cross beyond it.â
: âThe conditioned soul cannot revive his Ká¹á¹£á¹a consciousness by his own effort. But out of causeless mercy, Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a compiled the Vedic literature and its supplements, the PurÄá¹as.
: âThe forgetful conditioned soul is educated by Ká¹á¹£á¹a through the Vedic literatures, the realized spiritual master and the Supersoul. Through these, he can understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead as He is, and he can understand that Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a is his eternal master and deliverer from the clutches of mÄyÄ. In this way one can acquire real knowledge of his conditioned life and can come to understand how to attain liberation.
: âThe Vedic literatures give information about the living entityâs eternal relationship with Ká¹á¹£á¹a, which is called sambandha. The living entityâs understanding of this relationship and his acting accordingly is called abhidheya. Returning home, back to Godhead, is the ultimate goal of life and is called prayojana.
: âDevotional service, or sense activity for the satisfaction of the Lord, is called abhidheya because it can develop oneâs original love of Godhead, which is the goal of life. This goal is the living entityâs topmost interest and greatest wealth. Thus one attains the platform of transcendental loving service unto the Lord.
: âWhen one attains the transcendental bliss of an intimate relationship with Ká¹á¹£á¹a, he renders service to Him and tastes the mellows of Ká¹á¹£á¹a consciousness.
: âThe following parable may be given. Once a learned astrologer came to the house of a poor man and, seeing his distressed condition, questioned him.
: âThe astrologer asked, âWhy are you unhappy? Your father was very wealthy, but he did not disclose his wealth to you because he died elsewhere.â
: âJust as the words of the astrologer SarvajÃ±Ä gave news of the poor manâs treasure, the Vedic literatures advise one about Ká¹á¹£á¹a consciousness when one is inquisitive to know why he is in a distressed material condition.
: âBy the words of the astrologer, the poor manâs connection with the treasure was established. Similarly, the Vedic literature advises us that our real connection is with ÅrÄ« Ká¹á¹£á¹a, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
: âAlthough being assured of his fatherâs treasure, the poor man cannot acquire this treasure by such knowledge alone. Therefore the astrologer had to inform him of the means whereby he could actually find the treasure.
: âThe astrologer said, âThe treasure is in this place, but if you dig toward the southern side, the wasps and drones will rise, and you will not get your treasure.
: â âIf you dig on the western side, there is a ghost who will create such a disturbance that your hands will not even touch the treasure.
: â âIf you dig on the northern side, there is a big black snake that will devour you if you attempt to dig up the treasure.
: â âHowever, if you dig up a small quantity of dirt on the eastern side, your hands will immediately touch the pot of treasure.â
: âThe revealed scriptures conclude that one should give up fruitive activity, speculative knowledge and the mystic yoga system and instead take to devotional service, by which Ká¹á¹£á¹a can be fully satisfied.
: â[The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Ká¹á¹£á¹a, said:] âMy dear Uddhava, neither through aá¹£á¹Äá¹
ga-yoga [the mystic yoga system to control the senses], nor through impersonal monism or an analytical study of the Absolute Truth, nor through study of the Vedas, nor through austerities, charity or acceptance of sannyÄsa can one satisfy Me as much as by developing unalloyed devotional service unto Me.
: â âBeing very dear to the devotees and sÄdhus, I am attained through unflinching faith and devotional service. This bhakti-yoga system, which gradually increases attachment for Me, purifies even a human being born among dog-eaters. That is to say, everyone can be elevated to the spiritual platform by the process of bhakti-yoga.â
: âThe conclusion is that devotional service is the only means for approaching the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This system is therefore called abhidheya. This is the verdict of all revealed scriptures.
: âWhen one actually becomes rich, he naturally enjoys all kinds of happiness. When one is actually in a happy mood, all distressful conditions go away by themselves. No extraneous endeavor is needed.
: âSimilarly, as a result of bhakti, oneâs dormant love for Ká¹á¹£á¹a awakens. When one is so situated that he can taste the association of Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a, material existence, the repetition of birth and death, comes to an end.
: âThe goal of love of Godhead is not to become materially rich or free from material bondage. The real goal is to be situated in devotional service to the Lord and to enjoy transcendental bliss.
: âIn the Vedic literatures, Ká¹á¹£á¹a is the central point of attraction, and His service is our activity. To attain the platform of love of Ká¹á¹£á¹a is lifeâs ultimate goal. Therefore Ká¹á¹£á¹a, Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs service and love of Ká¹á¹£á¹a are the three great riches of life.
: âIn all revealed scriptures, beginning with the Vedas, the central point of attraction is Ká¹á¹£á¹a. When complete knowledge of Him is realized, the bondage of mÄyÄ, the illusory energy, is automatically broken.
: â âThere are many types of Vedic literatures and supplementary PurÄá¹as. In each of them there are particular demigods who are spoken of as the chief demigods. This is just to create an illusion for moving and nonmoving living entities. Let them perpetually engage in such imaginations. However, when one analytically studies all these Vedic literatures collectively, he comes to the conclusion that Lord Viá¹£á¹u is the one and only Supreme Personality of Godhead.â
: âWhen one accepts the Vedic literature by interpretation or even by dictionary meaning, directly or indirectly the ultimate declaration of Vedic knowledge points to Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a.
: â[Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a said:] âWhat is the purpose of all Vedic literatures? On whom do they focus? Who is the object of all speculation? Outside of Me no one knows these things. Now you should know that all these activities are aimed at ordaining and setting forth Me. The purpose of the Vedic literatures is to know Me by different speculations, either by indirect understanding or by dictionary understanding. Everyone is speculating about Me. The essence of all Vedic literatures is to distinguish Me from mÄyÄ. By considering the illusory energy, one comes to the platform of understanding Me. In this way one becomes free from speculation about the Vedas and comes to Me as the conclusion. Thus one is satisfied.â
: âThe transcendental form of Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a is unlimited and also has unlimited opulence. He possesses the internal potency, external potency and marginal potency.
: âThe material and the spiritual world are transformations of Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs external and internal potencies respectively. Therefore Ká¹á¹£á¹a is the original source of both the material and the spiritual manifestations.
: â âThe Tenth Canto of ÅrÄ«mad-BhÄgavatam reveals the tenth object, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the shelter of all surrendered souls. He is known as ÅrÄ« Ká¹á¹£á¹a, and He is the ultimate source of all the universes. Let me offer my obeisances unto Him.â
: âO SanÄtana, please hear about the eternal form of Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a. He is the Absolute Truth, devoid of duality but present in Vá¹ndÄvana as the son of Nanda MahÄrÄja.
: âKá¹á¹£á¹a is the original source of everything and the sum total of everything. He appears as the supreme youth, and His whole body is composed of spiritual bliss. He is the shelter of everything and master of everyone.
: â âKá¹á¹£á¹a, who is known as Govinda, is the supreme controller. He has an eternal, blissful, spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin, for He is the prime cause of all causes.â
: âThe original Supreme Personality of Godhead is Ká¹á¹£á¹a. His original name is Govinda. He is full of all opulences, and His eternal abode is known as Goloka Vá¹ndÄvana.
: â âAll these incarnations of Godhead are either plenary portions or parts of the plenary portions of the puruá¹£a-avatÄras. But Ká¹á¹£á¹a is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. In every age He protects the world through His different features when the world is disturbed by the enemies of Indra.â
: âThere are three kinds of spiritual processes for understanding the Absolute Truth â the processes of speculative knowledge, mystic yoga and bhakti-yoga. According to these three processes, the Absolute Truth is manifested as Brahman, ParamÄtmÄ or BhagavÄn.
: â âLearned transcendentalists who know the Absolute Truth call this nondual substance Brahman, ParamÄtmÄ or BhagavÄn.â
: âThe manifestation of the impersonal Brahman effulgence, which is without variety, is the rays of Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs bodily effulgence. It is exactly like the sun. When the sun is seen by our ordinary eyes, it appears to consist simply of effulgence.
: â âI worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is endowed with great power. The glowing effulgence of His transcendental form is the impersonal Brahman, which is absolute, complete and unlimited and which displays the varieties of countless planets, with their different opulences, in millions and millions of universes.â
: âThe ParamÄtmÄ, the Supersoul feature, is a plenary portion of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the original soul of all living entities. Ká¹á¹£á¹a is the source of the ParamÄtmÄ.
: â âYou should know Ká¹á¹£á¹a to be the original soul of all ÄtmÄs [living entities]. For the benefit of the whole universe, He has, out of His causeless mercy, appeared as an ordinary human being. He has done this by the strength of His own internal potency.â
: â âBut what need is there, Arjuna, for all this detailed knowledge? With a single fragment of Myself I pervade and support this entire universe.â
: âOnly by devotional activity can one understand the transcendental form of the Lord, which is perfect in all respects. Although His form is one, He can expand His form into unlimited numbers by His supreme will.
: âThe Supreme Personality of Godhead exists in three principal forms â svayaá¹-rÅ«pa, tad-ekÄtma-rÅ«pa and ÄveÅa-rÅ«pa.
: âThe original form of the Lord [svayaá¹-rÅ«pa] is exhibited in two forms â svayaá¹-rÅ«pa and svayaá¹-prakÄÅa. In His original form as svayaá¹-rÅ«pa, Ká¹á¹£á¹a is observed as a cowherd boy in Vá¹ndÄvana.
: âIn His original form, Ká¹á¹£á¹a manifests Himself in two features â prÄbhava and vaibhava. He expands His one original form into many, as He did during the rÄsa-lÄ«lÄ dance.
: âWhen the Lord married 16,108 wives at DvÄrakÄ, He expanded Himself into many forms. These expansions and the expansions at the rÄsa dance are called prÄbhava-prakÄÅa, according to the directions of revealed scriptures.
: âThe prÄbhava-prakÄÅa expansions of Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a are not like the expansions of the sage Saubhari. Had they been so, NÄrada would not have been astonished to see them.
: â âIt is astounding that Lord ÅrÄ« Ká¹á¹£á¹a, who is one without a second, expanded Himself in sixteen thousand similar forms to marry sixteen thousand queens in their respective homes.â
: âIf one form or feature is differently manifested according to different emotional features, it is called vaibhava-prakÄÅa.
: âWhen the Lord expands Himself in innumerable forms, there is no difference in the forms, but due to different features, bodily colors and weapons, the names are different.
: â âIn different Vedic scriptures, there are prescribed rules and regulative principles for worshiping different types of forms. When one is purified by these rules and regulations, he worships You, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Although manifested in many forms, You are one.â
: âThe first manifestation of the vaibhava feature of Ká¹á¹£á¹a is ÅrÄ« BalarÄmajÄ«. ÅrÄ« BalarÄma and Ká¹á¹£á¹a have different bodily colors, but otherwise ÅrÄ« BalarÄma is equal to Ká¹á¹£á¹a in all respects.
: âAn example of vaibhava-prakÄÅa is the son of DevakÄ«. He sometimes has two hands and sometimes four hands.
: âWhen the Lord is two-handed He is called vaibhava-prakÄÅa, and when He is four-handed He is called prÄbhava-prakÄÅa.
: âIn His original form, the Lord dresses like a cowherd boy and thinks Himself one. When He appears as VÄsudeva, the son of Vasudeva and DevakÄ«, His dress and consciousness are those of a ká¹£atriya, a warrior.
: âWhen one compares the beauty, opulence, sweetness and intellectual pastimes of VÄsudeva, the warrior, to Ká¹á¹£á¹a, the cowherd boy, son of Nanda MahÄrÄja, one sees that Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs attributes are more pleasant.
: âIndeed, VÄsudeva is agitated just to see the sweetness of Govinda, and a transcendental greed awakens in Him to enjoy that sweetness.
: â âMy dear friend, this dramatic actor appears like a second form of My own self. Like a picture, He displays My pastimes as a cowherd boy overflowing with wonderfully attractive sweetness and fragrance, which are so dear to the damsels of Vraja. When I see such a display, My heart becomes greatly excited. I long for such pastimes and desire a form exactly like that of the damsels of Vraja.â
: âOne instance of VÄsudevaâs attraction to Ká¹á¹£á¹a occurred when VÄsudeva saw the Gandharva dance at MathurÄ. Another instance occurred in DvÄrakÄ when VÄsudeva was surprised to see a picture of Ká¹á¹£á¹a.
: â âWho manifests an abundance of sweetness greater than Mine, which has never been experienced before and which causes wonder to all? Alas, I Myself, My mind bewildered upon seeing this beauty, impetuously desire to enjoy it like ÅrÄ«matÄ« RÄdhÄrÄá¹Ä«.â
: âWhen that body is a little differently manifested and its features are a little different in transcendental emotion and form, it is called tad-ekÄtma.
: âIn the tad-ekÄtma-rÅ«pa there are pastime expansions [vilÄsa] and personal expansions [svÄá¹Åa]. Consequently there are two divisions. According to pastime and personal expansion, there are various differences.
: âAgain the vilÄsa forms are divided into twofold categories â prÄbhava and vaibhava. Again the pastimes of these forms are of unlimited variety.
: âThe chief quadruple expansions are named VÄsudeva, Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. These are called prÄbhava-vilÄsa.
: âBalarÄma, who has the same original form as Ká¹á¹£á¹a, is Himself a cowherd boy in Vá¹ndÄvana, and He also considers Himself a member of the ká¹£atriya race in DvÄrakÄ. Thus His color and dress are different, and He is called a pastime form of Ká¹á¹£á¹a.
: âÅrÄ« BalarÄma is a vaibhava-prakÄÅa manifestation of Ká¹á¹£á¹a. He is also manifested in the original quadruple expansions of VÄsudeva, Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a, Pradyumna and Aniruddha. These are prÄbhava-vilÄsa expansions with different emotions.
: âThe first expansion of the caturvyÅ«ha, quadruple forms, is unique. There is nothing to compare with Them. These quadruple forms are the source of unlimited quadruple forms.
: âThese four prÄbhava pastime forms of Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a reside eternally in DvÄrakÄ and MathurÄ.
: âFrom the original quadruple expansions, twenty-four forms are manifested. They differ according to the placement of the weapons in Their four hands. They are called vaibhava-vilÄsa.
: âLord Ká¹á¹£á¹a again expands, and within the paravyoma, the spiritual sky, He is situated in fullness as the four-handed NÄrÄyaá¹a, accompanied by expansions of the original quadruple form.
: âThus the original quadruple forms again manifest Themselves in a second set of quadruple expansions. The residences of these second quadruple expansions cover the four directions.
: âAgain these quadruple forms expand three times, beginning with KeÅava. That is the fulfillment of the pastime forms.
: âOut of the catur-vyÅ«ha, there are three expansions of each and every form, and They are named differently according to the position of the weapons. The VÄsudeva expansions are KeÅava, NÄrÄyaá¹a and MÄdhava.
: âThe expansions of Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a are Govinda, Viá¹£á¹u and MadhusÅ«dana. This Govinda is different from the original Govinda, for He is not the son of MahÄrÄja Nanda.
: âThe expansions of Pradyumna are Trivikrama, VÄmana and ÅrÄ«dhara. The expansions of Aniruddha are Há¹á¹£Ä«keÅa, PadmanÄbha and DÄmodara.
: âThese twelve are the predominating Deities of the twelve months. KeÅava is the predominating Deity of AgrahÄyana, and NÄrÄyaá¹a is the predominating Deity of Pauá¹£a.
: âThe predominating Deity of the month of MÄgha is MÄdhava, and the predominating Deity of the month of PhÄlguna is Govinda. Viá¹£á¹u is the predominating Deity of Caitra, and MadhusÅ«dana is the predominating Deity of VaiÅÄkha.
: âIn the month of Jyaiá¹£á¹ha, the predominating Deity is Trivikrama. In Äá¹£Äá¸ha the Deity is VÄmana, in ÅrÄvaá¹a the Deity is ÅrÄ«dhara, and in BhÄdra the Deity is Há¹á¹£Ä«keÅa.
: âIn the month of ÄÅvina, the predominating Deity is PadmanÄbha, and in KÄrttika it is DÄmodara. This DÄmodara is different from RÄdhÄ-DÄmodara, the son of Nanda MahÄrÄja in Vá¹ndÄvana.
: âWhen putting the twelve tilaka marks on the twelve places of the body, one has to chant the mantra consisting of these twelve Viá¹£á¹u names. After daily worship, when one anoints the different parts of the body with water, these names should be chanted as one touches each part of the body.
: âFrom VÄsudeva, Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a, Pradyumna and Aniruddha, there are eight additional pastime expansions. O SanÄtana, please hear Me as I mention Their names.
: âThe eight pastime expansions are Puruá¹£ottama, Acyuta, Ná¹siá¹ha, JanÄrdana, Hari, Ká¹á¹£á¹a, Adhoká¹£aja and Upendra.
: âOf these eight expansions, two are pastime forms of VÄsudeva. Their names are Adhoká¹£aja and Puruá¹£ottama. The two pastime forms of Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a are Upendra and Acyuta.
: âThe pastime forms of Pradyumna are Ná¹siá¹ha and JanÄrdana, and the pastime forms of Aniruddha are Hari and Ká¹á¹£á¹a.
: âAll these twenty-four forms constitute the chief prÄbhava-vilÄsa pastime forms of the Lord. They are named differently according to the position of the weapons in Their hands.
: âOf all these, the forms that differ in dress and features are distinguished as vaibhava-vilÄsa.
: âOf Them, PadmanÄbha, Trivikrama, Ná¹siá¹ha, VÄmana, Hari, Ká¹á¹£á¹a and so on all have different bodily features.
: âVÄsudeva and the three others are direct prÄbhava pastime forms of Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a. Of these quadruple forms, the pastime expansions are twenty in number.
: âAll these forms preside over different Vaikuá¹á¹ha planets in the spiritual world, beginning from the east in consecutive order. In each of the eight directions, there are three different forms.
: âAlthough They all have Their residences eternally in the spiritual sky, some of Them are situated within the material universes.
: âThere is an eternal residence of NÄrÄyaá¹a in the spiritual sky. In the upper portion of the spiritual sky is a planet known as Ká¹á¹£á¹aloka, which is filled with all opulences.
: âThe planet of Ká¹á¹£á¹aloka is divided into three sections â Gokula, MathurÄ and DvÄrakÄ.
: âLord KeÅava eternally resides at MathurÄ, and Lord Puruá¹£ottama, known by the name JagannÄtha, eternally resides at NÄ«lÄcala.
: âAt PrayÄga, the Lord is situated as Bindu MÄdhava, and at MandÄra-parvata, the Lord is known as MadhusÅ«dana. VÄsudeva, PadmanÄbha and JanÄrdana reside at ÄnandÄraá¹ya.
: âAt Viá¹£á¹u-kÄÃ±cÄ« there is Lord Viá¹£á¹u, at MÄyÄpur Lord Hari, and throughout the universe a variety of other forms.
: âWithin the universe the Lord is situated in different spiritual manifestations. These are situated on seven islands in nine sections. Thus Their pastimes are going on.
: âThe Lord is situated in all the universes in different forms just to please His devotees. Thus the Lord destroys irreligious principles and establishes religious principles.
: âOf these forms, some are considered incarnations. Examples are Lord Viá¹£á¹u, Lord Trivikrama, Lord Ná¹siá¹ha and Lord VÄmana.
: âMy dear SanÄtana, just hear from Me as I tell you how the different viá¹£á¹u-mÅ«rtis hold Their weapons, beginning with the disc, and how They are named differently according to the placement of the weapons in Their hands.
: âThe procedure for counting begins with the lower right hand and goes to the upper right hand, the upper left hand, and the lower left hand. Lord Viá¹£á¹u is named according to the order of the weapons He holds in His hands.
: âAccording to the SiddhÄrtha-saá¹hitÄ there are twenty-four forms of Lord Viá¹£á¹u. First I shall describe, according to the opinion of that book, the location of the weapons, beginning with the disc.
: âIn His lower right hand, Lord VÄsudeva holds a club, in the upper right hand a conchshell, in the upper left hand a disc and in the lower left hand a lotus flower. In His lower right hand, Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a holds a club, in His upper right hand a conchshell, in His upper left hand a lotus flower and in His lower left hand a disc.
: âPradyumna holds the disc, conch, club and lotus. Aniruddha holds the disc, club, conch and lotus.
: âThus in the spiritual sky the expansions, headed by VÄsudeva, hold weapons in Their own respective order. I am repeating the opinion of the SiddhÄrtha-saá¹hitÄ in describing Them.
: âLord KeÅava holds the lotus, conch, disc and club. Lord NÄrÄyaá¹a holds the conch, lotus, club and disc.
: âLord MÄdhava holds the club, disc, conch and lotus. Lord Govinda holds the disc, club, lotus and conch.
: âLord Viá¹£á¹u holds the club, lotus, conch and disc. Lord MadhusÅ«dana holds the disc, conch, lotus and club.
: âLord Trivikrama holds the lotus, club, disc and conch. Lord VÄmana holds the conch, disc, club and lotus.
: âLord ÅrÄ«dhara holds the lotus, disc, club and conch. Lord Há¹á¹£Ä«keÅa holds the club, disc, lotus and conch.
: âLord PadmanÄbha holds the conch, lotus, disc and club. Lord DÄmodara holds the lotus, disc, club and conch.
: âLord Puruá¹£ottama holds the disc, lotus, conch and club. Lord Acyuta holds the club, lotus, disc and conch.
: âLord Ná¹siá¹ha holds the disc, lotus, club and conch. Lord JanÄrdana holds the lotus, disc, conch and club.
: âÅrÄ« Hari holds the conch, disc, lotus and club. Lord ÅrÄ« Ká¹á¹£á¹a holds the conch, club, lotus and disc.
: âLord Adhoká¹£aja holds the lotus, club, conch and disc. Lord Upendra holds the conch, club, disc and lotus.
: âAccording to the HayaÅÄ«rá¹£a-paÃ±carÄtra, there are sixteen personalities. I shall now describe that opinion of how They hold the weapons.
: âKeÅava is described differently as holding the lotus, conch, club and disc, and MÄdhava is described as holding the disc, club, conch and lotus in His hands.
: âAccording to the HayaÅÄ«rá¹£a PaÃ±carÄtra, NÄrÄyaá¹a and others are also presented differently as holding the weapons in different hands.
: âKá¹á¹£á¹a, the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, indicated as the son of MahÄrÄja Nanda, has two names. One is svayaá¹ bhagavÄn, and the other is lÄ«lÄ-puruá¹£ottama.
: âLord Ká¹á¹£á¹a personally surrounds DvÄrakÄ-purÄ« as its protector. In different parts of the city, in nine places, He expands in nine different forms.
: â âThe nine personalities mentioned are VÄsudeva, Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a, Pradyumna, Aniruddha, NÄrÄyaá¹a, Ná¹siá¹ha, HayagrÄ«va, VarÄha and BrahmÄ.â
: âI have already described the pastime and prakÄÅa forms. Now please hear about the different personal expansions.
: âThe first personal expansion is Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a, and the others are incarnations like the fish incarnation. Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a is an expansion of the Puruá¹£a, or Viá¹£á¹u. The incarnations such as Matsya, the fish incarnation, appear in different yugas for specific pastimes.
: âThere are six types of incarnations [avatÄras] of Ká¹á¹£á¹a. One comprises the incarnations of Viá¹£á¹u [puruá¹£a-avatÄras], and another comprises the incarnations meant for the performance of pastimes [lÄ«lÄ-avatÄras].
: âThere are incarnations that control the material qualities [guá¹a-avatÄras], incarnations who appear during the reign of each Manu [manvantara-avatÄras], incarnations in different millenniums [yuga-avatÄras] and incarnations of empowered living entities [ÅaktyÄveÅa-avatÄras].
: âChildhood and boyhood are the typical ages of the Deity. Ká¹á¹£á¹a, the son of MahÄrÄja Nanda, performed His pastimes as a child and as a boy.
: âThere are innumerable incarnations of Ká¹á¹£á¹a, and there is no possibility of counting them. We can simply indicate them by giving the example of the moon and the branches of a tree.
: â âO learned brÄhmaá¹as, just as hundreds and thousands of small rivulets issue from great reservoirs of water, innumerable incarnations flow from ÅrÄ« Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead and the reservoir of all power.â
: âIn the beginning, Ká¹á¹£á¹a incarnates Himself as the puruá¹£a-avatÄras, or Viá¹£á¹u incarnations. These are of three types.
: â âViá¹£á¹u has three forms called puruá¹£as. The first, MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u, is the creator of the total material energy [mahat], the second is GarbhodaÅÄyÄ«, who is situated within each universe, and the third is Ká¹£Ä«rodaÅÄyÄ«, who lives in the heart of every living being. He who knows these three becomes liberated from the clutches of mÄyÄ.â
: âKá¹á¹£á¹a has unlimited potencies, out of which three are chief â willpower, the power of knowledge and the creative energy.
: âThe predominator of the willing potency is Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a, for by His supreme will everything comes into existence. In willing, there is a need for knowledge, and that knowledge is expressed through VÄsudeva.
: âThere is no possibility of creation without thinking, feeling, willing, knowledge and activity. The combination of the supreme will, knowledge and action brings about the cosmic manifestation.
: âLord Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a is Lord BalarÄma. Being the predominator of the creative energy, He creates both the material and the spiritual world.
: âThat original Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a [Lord BalarÄma] is the cause of both the material and the spiritual creation. He is the predominating Deity of egotism, and by the will of Ká¹á¹£á¹a and the power of the spiritual energy, He creates the spiritual world, which consists of the planet Goloka Vá¹ndÄvana and the Vaikuá¹á¹ha planets.
: âAlthough there is no question of creation as far as the spiritual world is concerned, the spiritual world is nonetheless manifested by the supreme will of Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a. The spiritual world is the abode of the pastimes of the eternal spiritual energy.
: â âGokula, the supreme abode and planet, appears like a lotus flower that has a thousand petals. The whorl of that lotus is the abode of the Supreme Lord, Ká¹á¹£á¹a. This lotus-shaped supreme abode is created by the will of Lord Ananta.â
: âBy the agency of the material energy, this same Lord Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a creates all the universes. The dull material energy â known in modern language as nature â is not the cause of the material universe.
: âWithout the Supreme Personality of Godheadâs energy, dull matter cannot create the cosmic manifestation. Its power does not arise from the material energy itself but is endowed by Saá¹
: âDull matter alone cannot create anything. The material energy produces the creation by the power of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Iron itself has no power to burn, but when iron is placed in fire, it is empowered to burn.
: â âBalarÄma and Ká¹á¹£á¹a are the original efficient and material causes of the material world. As MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u and the material energy, They enter into the material elements and create the diversities by multi-energies. Thus They are the cause of all causes.â
: âThe form of the Lord that descends into the material world to create is called an avatÄra, or incarnation.
: âAll the expansions of Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a are actually residents of the spiritual world. But when they descend into the material world, they are called incarnations [avatÄras].
: âTo glance over that material energy and empower her, Lord Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a first incarnates as Lord MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u.
: â âIn the beginning of the creation, the Lord expanded Himself in the form of the puruá¹£a incarnation, accompanied by all the ingredients of material creation. First He created the sixteen principal energies suitable for creation. This was for the purpose of manifesting the material universes.â
: â âKÄraá¹ÄbdhiÅÄyÄ« Viá¹£á¹u [MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u] is the first incarnation of the Supreme Lord, and He is the master of eternal time, space, cause and effects, the mind, the elements, the material ego, the modes of nature, the senses, the universal form of the Lord, GarbhodakaÅÄyÄ« Viá¹£á¹u and the sum total of all living beings, both moving and nonmoving.â
: âThat original Personality of Godhead, named Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a, first lies down in the river VirajÄ, which serves as a border between the material and the spiritual world. As KÄraá¹ÄbdhiÅÄyÄ« Viá¹£á¹u, He is the original cause of the material creation.
: âThe VirajÄ, or Causal Ocean, is the border between the spiritual and the material world. The material energy is situated on one shore of that ocean, and it cannot enter onto the other shore, which is the spiritual sky.
: â âIn the spiritual world, there is neither the mode of passion, the mode of ignorance nor a mixture of both, nor is there adulterated goodness, the influence of time or mÄyÄ herself. Only the pure devotees of the Lord, who are worshiped both by demigods and by demons, reside in the spiritual world as the Lordâs associates.â
: âMÄyÄ has two functions. One is called mÄyÄ, and the other is called pradhÄna. MÄyÄ refers to the efficient cause, and pradhÄna refers to the ingredients that create the cosmic manifestation.
: âWhen the Supreme Personality of Godhead glances over the material energy, she becomes agitated. At that time, the Lord injects the original semen of the living entities.
: âTo impregnate with the seeds of the living entities, the Lord Himself does not directly touch the material energy, but by His specific functional expansion He touches the material energy, and thus the living entities, who are His parts and parcels, are impregnated into material nature.
: â âAt a time beyond memory, after agitating the material nature into three qualities, the Supreme Personality of Godhead placed the semen of innumerable living entities within the womb of that material nature. Thus material nature gave birth to the total material energy, known as the hiraá¹maya-mahat-tattva, the original symbolic representation of the cosmic manifestation.â
: â âIn due course of time, the Supreme Personality of Godhead [MahÄ-Vaikuá¹á¹hanÄtha], by the agency of an expansion of His personal self [MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u], placed the seed of the living entities entities within the womb of material nature.â
: âFirst the total material energy is manifested, and from this arise the three types of egotism, which are the original sources from which all demigods [controlling deities], senses and material elements expand.
: âCombining all the different elements, the Supreme Lord created all the universes. Those universes are unlimited in number; there is no possibility of counting them.
: âThe first form of Lord Viá¹£á¹u is called MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u. He is the original creator of the total material energy. The innumerable universes emanate from the pores of His body.
: âThese universes are understood to be floating in the air that MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u exhales. They are like atomic particles that float in sunshine and pass through the holes of a screen. All these universes are thus created by the exhalation of MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u, and when MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u inhales, they re-enter His body. The unlimited opulences of MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u are completely beyond material conception.
: â âThe BrahmÄs and other lords of the mundane worlds appear from the pores of MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u and remain alive for the duration of His one exhalation. I adore the primeval Lord, Govinda, of whom MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u is a portion of a plenary portion.â
: âMahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u is the Supersoul of all the universes. Lying on the Causal Ocean, He is the master of all material worlds.
: âI have thus explained the truth of the first Personality of Godhead, MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u. I shall now explain the glories of the second Personality of Godhead.
: âAfter creating the total number of universes, which are unlimited, MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u expanded Himself into unlimited forms and entered into each of them.
: âWhen MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u entered each of the limitless universes, He saw that there was darkness all around and that there was no place to stay. He therefore began to consider the situation.
: âWith the perspiration produced from His own body, the Lord filled half the universe with water. He then lay down on that water, on the bed of Lord Åeá¹£a.
: âA lotus flower then sprouted from the lotus navel of that GarbhodakaÅÄyÄ« Viá¹£á¹u. That lotus flower became Lord BrahmÄâs birthplace.
: âIn the stem of that lotus flower, the fourteen worlds were generated. Then He became Lord BrahmÄ and manifested the entire universe.
: âIn this way, the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His form of Viá¹£á¹u maintains the entire material world. Since He is always beyond the material qualities, the material nature cannot touch Him.
: âThe Supreme Lord in His form of Rudra [Lord Åiva] brings about the dissolution of this material creation. In other words, only by His will are there creation, maintenance and dissolution of the whole cosmic manifestation.
: âBrahmÄ, Viá¹£á¹u and Åiva are His three incarnations of the material qualities. Creation, maintenance and destruction respectively are under the charge of these three personalities.
: âGarbhodakaÅÄyÄ« Viá¹£á¹u, known within the universe as Hiraá¹yagarbha and the antaryÄmÄ«, or Supersoul, is glorified in the Vedic hymns, beginning with the hymn that starts with the word âsahasra-ÅÄ«rá¹£Ä.â
: âThis second Personality of Godhead, known as GarbhodakaÅÄyÄ« Viá¹£á¹u, is the master of each and every universe and the shelter of the external energy. Nonetheless, He remains beyond the touch of the external energy.
: âThe third expansion of Viá¹£á¹u is Ká¹£Ä«rodakaÅÄyÄ« Viá¹£á¹u, who is the incarnation of the quality of goodness. He is to be counted within both types of incarnations [puruá¹£a-avatÄras and guá¹a-avatÄras].
: âKá¹£Ä«rodakaÅÄyÄ« Viá¹£á¹u is the universal form of the Lord and is the Supersoul within every living entity. He is known as Ká¹£Ä«rodakaÅÄyÄ« because He is the Lord who lies on the ocean of milk. He is the maintainer and master of the universe.
: âO SanÄtana, I have definitively described the three puruá¹£a-avatÄras of Viá¹£á¹u. Now please hear from Me about the pastime incarnations.
: âNo one can count the innumerable pastime incarnations of Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a, but I shall describe the principal ones.
: âSome of the pastime incarnations are the fish incarnation, the tortoise incarnation, Lord RÄmacandra, Lord Ná¹siá¹ha, Lord VÄmana and Lord VarÄha. There is no end to them.
: â âO Lord of the universe, best of the Yadu dynasty, we are offering our prayers unto You mainly to diminish the heavy burden of the universe. Indeed, You diminished this burden formerly by incarnating in the form of a fish, a horse [HayagrÄ«va], a tortoise, a lion [Lord Ná¹siá¹ha], a boar [Lord VarÄha] and a swan. You also incarnated as Lord RÄmacandra, ParaÅurÄma and VÄmana, the dwarf. You have always protected us demigods and the universe in this way. Now please continue.â
: âI have given a few examples of pastime incarnations. Now I will describe the guá¹a-avatÄras, the incarnations of the material qualities. Please listen.
: âThere are three functions within this material world. Everything here is created, everything is maintained for some time, and everything is finally dissolved. The Lord therefore incarnates Himself as the controllers of the three qualities â sattva-guá¹a, rajo-guá¹a and tamo-guá¹a [goodness, passion and ignorance]. Thus the transactions of the material world take place.
: âBecause of his past pious activities mixed with devotional service, the first-class living entity is influenced by the mode of passion within his mind.
: âSuch a devotee is empowered by GarbhodakaÅÄyÄ« Viá¹£á¹u. In this way, an incarnation of Ká¹á¹£á¹a in the form of BrahmÄ engineers the total creation of the universe.
: â âThe sun manifests his brilliance in a gem, although it is stone. Similarly, the original Personality of Godhead, Govinda, manifests His special power in a pious living entity. Thus the living entity becomes BrahmÄ and manages the affairs of the universe. Let me worship Govinda, the original Personality of Godhead.â
: âIf in a kalpa a suitable living entity is not available to take charge of BrahmÄâs post, the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself personally expands and becomes Lord BrahmÄ.
: â âWhat is the value of a throne to Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a? The masters of the various planetary systems accept the dust of His lotus feet on their crowned heads. That dust makes the holy places sacred, and even Lord BrahmÄ, Lord Åiva, Laká¹£mÄ« and I Myself, who are all portions of His plenary portion, eternally carry that dust on our heads.â
: âLord Ká¹á¹£á¹a, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, expands a portion of His plenary portion and, accepting the association of the material mode of ignorance, assumes the form of Rudra to dissolve the cosmic manifestation.
: âRudra, Lord Åiva, has various forms, which are transformations brought about by association with mÄyÄ. Although Rudra is not on a level with the jÄ«va-tattvas, he still cannot be considered a personal expansion of Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a.
: âMilk is transformed into yogurt when it associates with a yogurt culture. Thus yogurt is nothing but milk, but still it is not milk.
: â âMilk changes into yogurt when mixed with a yogurt culture, but actually it is constitutionally nothing but milk. Similarly, Govinda, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, assumes the form of Lord Åiva [Åambhu] for the special purpose of material transactions. I offer my obeisances at His lotus feet.â
: âLord Åiva is an associate of the external energy; therefore he is absorbed in the material quality of darkness. Lord Viá¹£á¹u is transcendental to mÄyÄ and the qualities of mÄyÄ. Therefore He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
: â âThe truth about Lord Åiva is that he is always covered with three material coverings â vaikÄrika, taijasa and tÄmasa. Because of these three modes of material nature, he always associates with the external energy and egotism itself.â
: â âÅrÄ« Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is situated beyond the range of material nature; therefore He is the supreme transcendental person. He can see everything inside and outside; therefore He is the supreme overseer of all living entities. If someone takes shelter at His lotus feet and worships Him, he also attains a transcendental position.â
: âFor the maintenance of the universe, Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a descends as His personal plenary expansion in the form of Viá¹£á¹u. He is the director of the mode of goodness; therefore He is transcendental to the material energy.
: âLord Viá¹£á¹u is in the category of svÄá¹Åa because He has opulences almost equal to Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs. Ká¹á¹£á¹a is the original person, and Lord Viá¹£á¹u is His personal expansion. This is the verdict of all Vedic literatures.
: â âWhen the flame of one candle is expanded to another candle and placed in a different position, it burns separately, and its illumination is as powerful as the original candleâs. Similarly, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda, expands Himself in different forms as Viá¹£á¹u, who is equally luminous, powerful and opulent. Let me worship that Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda.â
: âThe conclusion is that Lord BrahmÄ and Lord Åiva are simply devotee incarnations who carry out orders. However, Lord Viá¹£á¹u, the maintainer, is the personal feature of Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a.
: â[Lord BrahmÄ said:] âI am engaged by the Supreme Personality of Godhead to create. Following His orders, Lord Åiva dissolves everything. The Supreme Personality of Godhead in His form of Ká¹£Ä«rodakaÅÄyÄ« Viá¹£á¹u maintains all the affairs of material nature. Thus the supreme controller of the three modes of material nature is Lord Viá¹£á¹u.â
: âO SanÄtana, now just hear about the incarnations who appear during the reign of each Manu [manvantara-avatÄras]. They are unlimited, and no one can count them. Just hear of their source.
: âIn one day of BrahmÄ, there are fourteen changes of the Manus, and during the reign of each of those fourteen Manus, an incarnation is manifested by the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
: âThere are 14 manvantara-avatÄras in one day of BrahmÄ, 420 in one month, and 5,040 in one year.
: âDuring the hundred years of BrahmÄâs life, there are 504,000 manvantara-avatÄras.
: âThe number of manvantara-avatÄras for only one universe has been given. One can only imagine how many manvantara-avatÄras exist in the innumerable universes. And all these universes and BrahmÄs exist only during one exhalation of MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u.
: âThere is no limit to the exhalations of MahÄ-Viá¹£á¹u. Just see how impossible it is to speak or write of only the manvantara-avatÄras!
: âIn the SvÄyambhuva-manvantara, the avatÄra is named YajÃ±a. In the SvÄrociá¹£a-manvantara, he is named Vibhu. In the Auttama-manvantara, He is named Satyasena, and in the TÄmasa-manvantara, He is named Hari.
: âIn the Raivata-manvantara, the avatÄra is named Vaikuá¹á¹ha, and in the CÄká¹£uá¹£a-manvantara, He is named Ajita. In the Vaivasvata-manvantara, He is named VÄmana, and in the SÄvará¹ya-manvantara, He is named SÄrvabhauma. In the Daká¹£a-sÄvará¹ya-manvantara, he is named á¹á¹£abha.
: âIn the Brahma-sÄvará¹ya-manvantara, the avatÄra is named Viá¹£vaksena, and in the Dharma-sÄvará¹ya, he is named Dharmasetu. In the Rudra-sÄvará¹ya he is named SudhÄmÄ, and in the Deva-sÄvará¹ya, he is named YogeÅvara.
: âIn the Indra-sÄvará¹ya-manvantara, the avatÄra is named Bá¹hadbhÄnu. These are the names of the fourteen avatÄras in the fourteen manvantaras.
: âO SanÄtana, now hear from Me about the yuga-avatÄras, the incarnations for the millenniums. First of all, there are four yugas â Satya-yuga, TretÄ-yuga, DvÄpara-yuga and Kali-yuga.
: âIn the four yugas â Satya, TretÄ, DvÄpara and Kali â the Lord incarnates in four colors: white, red, black and yellow respectively. These are the colors of the incarnations in different millenniums.
: â âThis child formerly had three colors according to the prescribed color for different millenniums. Formerly He was white, red and yellow, and now He has assumed a blackish color.â
: â âIn Satya-yuga the Lord appeared in a body colored white, with four arms and matted hair. He wore tree bark and bore a black antelope skin. He wore a sacred thread and a garland of rudrÄká¹£a beads. He carried a rod and a waterpot, and He was a brahmacÄrÄ«.â
: â âIn TretÄ-yuga, the Lord appeared in a body that had a reddish hue and four arms. There were three distinctive lines on His abdomen, and His hair was golden. His form manifested the Vedic knowledge, and He bore the symbols of a sacrificial spoon, ladle and so on.â
: âAs the white incarnation, the Lord taught religion and meditation. He offered benedictions to Kardama Muni, and in this way He showed His causeless mercy.
: âIn Satya-yuga the people were generally advanced in spiritual knowledge and could meditate upon Ká¹á¹£á¹a very easily. The peopleâs occupational duty in TretÄ-yuga was to perform great sacrifices. This was induced by the Personality of Godhead in His reddish incarnation.
: âIn DvÄpara-yuga the peopleâs occupational duty was to worship the lotus feet of Ká¹á¹£á¹a. Therefore Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a, appearing in a blackish body, personally induced people to worship Him.
: â âIn DvÄpara-yuga the Personality of Godhead appears in a blackish hue. He is dressed in yellow, He holds His own weapons, and He is decorated with the Kaustubha jewel and the mark of ÅrÄ«vatsa. That is how His symptoms are described.â
: â âI offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead, expanded as VÄsudeva, Saá¹
kará¹£aá¹a, Pradyumna and Aniruddha.â
: âBy this mantra, the people worship Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a in DvÄpara-yuga. In Kali-yuga the occupational duty of the people is to chant congregationally the holy name of Ká¹á¹£á¹a.
: âIn the Age of Kali, Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a assumes a golden color and, accompanied by His personal devotees, introduces hari-nÄma-saá¹
kÄ«rtana, the chanting of the Hare Ká¹á¹£á¹a mantra. By this process He delivers love for Ká¹á¹£á¹a to the general populace.
: âLord Ká¹á¹£á¹a, the son of Nanda MahÄrÄja, personally introduces the occupational duty of the Age of Kali. He personally chants and dances in ecstatic love, and thus the entire world chants congregationally.
: â âIn the Age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the name of Ká¹á¹£á¹a. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Ká¹á¹£á¹a Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions.â
: âIn the other three yugas â Satya, TretÄ and DvÄpara â people perform different types of spiritual activities. Whatever results they achieve in that way, they can achieve in Kali-yuga simply by chanting the Hare Ká¹á¹£á¹a mahÄ-mantra.
: â âMy dear King, although Kali-yuga is full of faults, there is still one good quality about this age. It is that simply by chanting the Hare Ká¹á¹£á¹a mahÄ-mantra, one can become free from material bondage and be promoted to the transcendental kingdom.â
: â âWhatever result was obtained in Satya-yuga by meditating on Viá¹£á¹u, in TretÄ-yuga by performing sacrifices and in DvÄpara-yuga by serving the Lordâs lotus feet can also be obtained in Kali-yuga simply by chanting the Hare Ká¹á¹£á¹a mahÄ-mantra.â
: â âWhatever is achieved by meditation in Satya-yuga, by the performance of yajÃ±a in TretÄ-yuga or by the worship of Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs lotus feet in DvÄpara-yuga is also obtained in the Age of Kali simply by chanting the glories of Lord KeÅava.â
: â âThose who are advanced and highly qualified and are interested in the essence of life know the good qualities of Kali-yuga. Such people worship the Age of Kali because in this age one can advance in spiritual knowledge and attain lifeâs goal simply by chanting the Hare Ká¹á¹£á¹a mahÄ-mantra.â
: âAs stated before when I described the incarnations of the material modes [guá¹a-avatÄras], one should consider that these incarnations also are unlimited and that no one can count them.
: âThus I have given a description of the incarnations of the four different yugas.â After hearing all this, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« gave an indirect hint to the Lord.
: SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« had been a minister under Nawab Hussain Shah, and he was undoubtedly as intelligent as Bá¹haspati, the chief priest of the heavenly kingdom. Due to the Lordâs unlimited mercy, SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« questioned Him without hesitation.
: SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« said, âI am a very insignificant living entity. I am low and poorly behaved. How can I understand who is the incarnation for this Age of Kali?â
: ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu replied, âAs in other ages an incarnation is accepted according to the directions of the ÅÄstras, in this Age of Kali an incarnation of God should be accepted in that way.
: âThe Vedic literatures composed by the omniscient MahÄmuni VyÄsadeva are evidence of all spiritual existence. Only through these revealed scriptures can all conditioned souls attain knowledge.
: âAn actual incarnation of God never says âI am Godâ or âI am an incarnation of God.â The great sage VyÄsadeva, knowing all, has already recorded the characteristics of the avatÄras in the ÅÄstras.
: â âThe Lord does not have a material body, yet He descends among human beings in His transcendental body as an incarnation. Therefore it is very difficult for us to understand who is an incarnation. Only by His extraordinary prowess and uncommon activities, which are impossible for embodied living entities, can one partially understand the incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.â
: âBy two symptoms â personal characteristics and marginal characteristics â the great sages can understand an object.
: âBodily features, nature and form are the personal characteristics. Knowledge of His activities provides the marginal characteristics.
: âIn the auspicious invocation at the beginning of ÅrÄ«mad-BhÄgavatam, ÅrÄ«la VyÄsadeva has described the Supreme Personality of Godhead by these symptoms.
: â âO my Lord, ÅrÄ« Ká¹á¹£á¹a, son of Vasudeva, O all-pervading Personality of Godhead, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You. I meditate upon Lord ÅrÄ« Ká¹á¹£á¹a because He is the Absolute Truth and the primeval cause of all causes of the creation, sustenance and destruction of the manifested universes. He is directly and indirectly conscious of all manifestations, and He is independent because there is no other cause beyond Him. It is He only who first imparted the Vedic knowledge unto the heart of BrahmÄjÄ«, the original living being. By Him even the great sages and demigods are placed into illusion, as one is bewildered by the illusory representations of water seen in fire, or land seen on water. Only because of Him do the material universes, temporarily manifested by the reactions of the three modes of nature, appear factual, although they are unreal. I therefore meditate upon Him, Lord ÅrÄ« Ká¹á¹£á¹a, who is eternally existent in the transcendental abode, which is forever free from the illusory representations of the material world. I meditate upon Him, for He is the Absolute Truth.â
: âIn this invocation from ÅrÄ«mad-BhÄgavatam, the word âparamâ indicates Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and the word âsatyamâ indicates His personal characteristics.
: âIn that same verse it is stated that the Lord is the creator, maintainer and annihilator of the cosmic manifestation and that He enabled Lord BrahmÄ to create the universe by infusing him with the knowledge of the Vedas. It is also stated that the Lord has full knowledge, directly and indirectly, that He knows past, present and future, and that His personal energy is separate from mÄyÄ, the illusory energy.
: âAll these activities are His marginal characteristics. Great saintly persons understand the incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the indications of the two characteristics known as svarÅ«pa and taá¹astha. All the incarnations of Ká¹á¹£á¹a should be understood in this way.
: âAt the time of Their appearance, the incarnations of the Lord are known in the world because people can consult the ÅÄstras to understand an incarnationâs chief characteristics, known as svarÅ«pa and taá¹astha. In this way the incarnations become known to great saintly persons.â
: SanÄtana GosvÄmÄ« said, âThe color of the personality in whom the characteristics of the Lord are found is yellowish. His activities include the distribution of love of Godhead and the chanting of the holy names of the Lord.
: âThe incarnation of Ká¹á¹£á¹a for this age is indicated by these symptoms. Please confirm this definitely so that all my doubts will go away.â
: ÅrÄ« Caitanya MahÄprabhu replied, âO SanÄtana, you must give up your intelligent tricks. Now just try to understand the description of the ÅaktyÄveÅa-avatÄras.
: âThere are unlimited ÅaktyÄveÅa-avatÄras of Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a. Let Me describe the chief among them.
: âEmpowered incarnations are of two types â primary and secondary. The primary ones are directly empowered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead and are called incarnations. The secondary ones are indirectly empowered by the Supreme Personality of Godhead and are called vibhÅ«ti.
: âSome ÅaktyÄveÅa-avatÄras are the four KumÄras, NÄrada, MahÄrÄja Pá¹thu and ParaÅurÄma. When a living being is empowered to act as Lord BrahmÄ, he is also considered a ÅaktyÄveÅa-avatÄra.
: âLord Åeá¹£a in the spiritual world of Vaikuá¹á¹ha and, in the material world, Lord Ananta, who carries innumerable planets on His hoods, are two primary empowered incarnations. There is no need to count the others, for they are unlimited.
: âThe power of knowledge was invested in the four KumÄras, and the power of devotional service was invested in NÄrada. The power of creation was invested in Lord BrahmÄ, and the power to carry innumerable planets was invested in Lord Ananta.
: âThe Supreme Personality of Godhead invested the power of personal service in Lord Åeá¹£a, and He invested the power to rule the earth in King Pá¹thu. Lord ParaÅurÄma received the power to kill rogues and miscreants.
: â âWhenever the Lord is present in someone by portions of His various potencies, the living entity representing the Lord is called a ÅaktyÄveÅa-avatÄra â that is, an incarnation invested with special power.â
: âAs explained in the eleventh chapter of the Bhagavad-gÄ«tÄ, Ká¹á¹£á¹a has spread Himself all over the universe in many personalities through specific powers, known as vibhÅ«ti.
: â âKnow that all opulent, beautiful and glorious creations spring from but a spark of My splendor.â
: â âBut what need is there, Arjuna, for all this detailed knowledge? With a single fragment of Myself I pervade and support this entire universe.â
: âThus I have explained specifically empowered incarnations. Now please hear about the characteristics of Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs childhood, boyhood and youth.
: âAs the son of MahÄrÄja Nanda, Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a is by nature the paragon of kiÅora [youth]. He chooses to exhibit His pastimes at that age.
: âBefore His personal appearance, the Lord causes some of His devotees to appear as His mother, father and intimate associates. He then appears later as if He were taking birth and growing from a baby to a child and gradually into a youth.
: â âThe Supreme Personality of Godhead is eternally enjoying Himself, and He is the shelter of all kinds of devotional service. Although His ages are various, His age known as kiÅora [pre-youth] is best of all.â
: âWhen Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a appears, from moment to moment He exhibits His different pastimes, beginning with the killing of PÅ«tanÄ. All these pastimes are eternally being demonstrated one after another.
: âThe consecutive pastimes of Ká¹á¹£á¹a are being manifested in one of the innumerable universes moment after moment. There is no possibility of counting the universes, but in any case some pastime of the Lord is being manifested at every moment in one universe or another.
: âThus the Lordâs pastimes are like the flowing Ganges water. In this way all the pastimes are manifested by the son of Nanda MahÄrÄja.
: âLord Ká¹á¹£á¹a exhibits His pastimes of childhood, boyhood and pre-youth. When He reaches pre-youth, He continues to exist eternally to perform His rÄsa dance and other pastimes.
: âDescriptions of Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs eternal pastimes are in all the revealed scriptures. But one cannot understand how they are continuing eternally.
: âLet me give an example by which people may understand Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs eternal pastimes. An example can be found in the zodiac.
: âThe sun moves across the zodiac day and night and crosses the oceans between the seven islands one after the other.
: âAccording to Vedic astronomical calculations, the rotation of the sun consists of sixty daá¹á¸as, and it is divided into thirty-six hundred palas.
: âThe sun rises in steps consisting of sixty palas. Sixty palas equal one daá¹á¸a, and eight daá¹á¸as comprise one prahara.
: âThe day and the night are divided into eight praharas â four belonging to the day and four belonging to the night. After eight praharas, the sun rises again.
: âJust as there is an orbit of the sun, there is an orbit of Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs pastimes, which are manifested one after the other. During the lifetime of fourteen Manus, this orbit expands through all the universes, and gradually it returns. Thus Ká¹á¹£á¹a moves with His pastimes through all the universes, one after another.
: âKá¹á¹£á¹a remains within a universe for 125 years, and He enjoys His pastimes both in Vá¹ndÄvana and DvÄrakÄ.
: âThe cycle of His pastimes turns like a wheel of fire. Thus Ká¹á¹£á¹a exhibits His pastimes one after the other in every universe.
: âKá¹á¹£á¹aâs pastimes â appearance, childhood, boyhood and youth â are all manifested, beginning with the killing of PÅ«tanÄ and extending to the end of the mauá¹£ala-lÄ«lÄ, the annihilation of the Yadu dynasty. All of these pastimes are rotating in every universe.
: âSince all Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs pastimes are taking place continuously, at every moment some pastime is existing in one universe or another. Consequently these pastimes are called eternal by the Vedas and PurÄá¹as.
: âThe spiritual abode known as Goloka, which is a pasturing land for surabhi cows, is as powerful and opulent as Ká¹á¹£á¹a. By the will of Ká¹á¹£á¹a, the original Goloka and Gokula dhÄmas are manifested with Him in all the universes.
: âThe eternal pastimes of Ká¹á¹£á¹a are continuously taking place in the original Goloka Vá¹ndÄvana planet. These same pastimes are gradually manifested within the material world, in each and every brahmÄá¹á¸a.
: âKá¹á¹£á¹a is complete in the spiritual sky [Vaikuá¹á¹ha], He is more complete in MathurÄ and DvÄrakÄ, and He is most complete in Vá¹ndÄvana, Vraja, due to His manifesting all His opulences.
: â âThis is stated in the dramatic literatures as âperfect,â âmore perfectâ and âmost perfect.â Thus Lord Ká¹á¹£á¹a manifests Himself in three ways â perfect, more perfect and most perfect.
: â âWhen the Supreme Personality of Godhead does not manifest all His transcendental qualities, He is called complete. When all the qualities are manifested, but not fully, He is called more complete. When He manifests all His qualities in fullness, He is called most complete. This is the version of all learned scholars in the devotional science.
: â âThe most complete qualities of Ká¹á¹£á¹a are manifested within Vá¹ndÄvana, and His complete and more complete qualities are manifested in DvÄrakÄ and MathurÄ.â
: âLord Ká¹á¹£á¹a is the most complete Supreme Personality of Godhead in Vá¹ndÄvana. Elsewhere all His expansions are either complete or more complete.
: âThus I have briefly described Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs manifestation of transcendental forms. This subject matter is so large that even Lord Ananta cannot describe it fully.
: âIn this way Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs transcendental forms are expanded unlimitedly. No one can count them. Whatever I have explained is simply a little glimpse. It is like showing the moon through the branches of a tree.â
: Whoever hears or recites these descriptions of the expansions of Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs body is certainly a very fortunate man. Although this is very difficult to understand, one can nonetheless acquire some knowledge about the different features of Ká¹á¹£á¹aâs body.
: Praying at the lotus feet of ÅrÄ« RÅ«pa and ÅrÄ« RaghunÄtha, always desiring their mercy, I, Ká¹á¹£á¹adÄsa, narrate ÅrÄ« Caitanya-caritÄmá¹ta, following in their footsteps.